Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice
Citation :Mercy M.Mugambi, Approaches to Inclusive Education and Implications for Curriculum Theory and Practice International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education 2017,4(10) : 92-106
Education is a fundamental human right as well as an instrument for economic growth and human development. Education is valued because it contributes to national development through the provision of human resource that helps to stimulate productivity and eliminate poverty, disease and ignorance. The World Declaration on Education for All adopted in Jomtein, Thailand (1990) set out the vision on universalizing access to education for all topromote equity. Inclusive education aims to strengthen the capacity of the education system to reach out to all children. Learning should be based on the clear understanding that learners are individuals with diverse characteristics and backgrounds, and the strategies to improve quality should therefore draw on learners' knowledge and strength. Many Acts originating from the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights have been documented to support inclusive education. Despite the emphasis on inclusive education, many challenges face its implementation: many curricula in learning institutions are still built around a model of a 'traditional' student which creates challenges for many of different types of learners; studies show that teachers do not feel prepared to undertake responsibility of an inclusive classroom and most times, teachers are not sure what to expect socially.; learning environment fail to support nature of different learners and un authentic assessment of achievement of learning outcomes. This paper presents the human right based and multicultural approaches to inclusive education and their implications for curriculum theory and practice in relation to differentiated curriculum content, instructional process, differentiated assessment, reorienting teacher education and involvement of parents and community.